Cancer is an umbrella term for a broad group of diseases triggered when abnormal cells divide rapidly and spread to other tissue and organs. Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world.

In a stable body, the trillions of cells it 's made of expand and split, while the body requires them to work every day. Good cells have a particular life cycle, reproducing and dying off in a manner that is determined by the type of cell. When they die, new cells take the place of old or destroyed cells. This mechanism is affected by cancer which contributes to irregular growth of cells. It's caused by DNA variations or mutations.

In the individual genes of an organism, DNA occurs. It instructs the cell when to perform functions and how to expand and break. Mutations happen often in DNA, but these errors are normally resolved by cells. A cell may become cancerous when an error is not corrected.

Mutations can allow cells that need to be replaced to survive instead of die, and where they are not required, new cells can form. These extra cells will break uncontrollably, causing the development of tumors. Based on where they develop in the body, tumors can cause a number of health problems.

Any cancer cells may spread to distant regions of the body via the bloodstream or lymphatic system as well. Metastasis is called this method. It is considered that tumors that have metastasized are more advanced than those that have not. Metastatic tumors tend to be more difficult and fatal to treat.

Types of Cancer

Cancers are named for the area in which they begin and the type of cell they are made of, even if they spread to other parts of the body. For example, a cancer that begins in the lungs and spreads to the liver is still called lung cancer. There are also several clinical terms used for certain general types of cancer:

  • Carcinoma is a cancer that starts in the skin or the tissues that line other organs.
  • Sarcoma is a cancer of connective tissues such as bones, muscles, cartilage, and blood vessels.
  • Leukemia is a cancer of bone marrow, which creates blood cells.
  • Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers of the immune system.

Risk Factors and Treatment

The direct cause of cancer is changes (or mutations) to the DNA in your cells. Genetic mutations can be inherited. They can also occur after birth as a result of environmental forces. Some of these forces include:

  • exposure to cancer-causing chemicals, called carcinogens
  • exposure to radiation
  • unprotected exposure to the sun
  • certain viruses, such as human papilloma virus (HPV)
  • smoking
  • lifestyle choices, such as type of diet and level of physical activity

 




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